Appeals Council Review
If a decision after hearing is unfavorable, you or your representative may ask for review of that decision by the Appeals Council, which sits in Falls Church, Virginia. The Appeals Council may decline to review the decision of the administrative law judge, in which case the decision of the ALJ becomes the final decision of the Commissioner of Social Security on the claim, subject to court review. The Appeals Council may review the decision of the ALJ and affirm it, modify it, reverse it, or remand it for a new hearing.
In some instances, the Appeals Council reviews decisions of administrative law judges, either favorable or unfavorable to the claimant, on its own motion.
New evidence, applicable to the time before the date of the ALJ’s decision, may be submitted to the Appeals Council. Review by the Appeals Council is almost always a review of the record. Although there is a provision that allows the claimant or representative to petition to be allowed to appear before the Appeals Council, oral argument is virtually never granted. See 20 C.F.R. §§ 404.967 et seq. regarding Appeals Council review.
If the Appeals Council denies review or makes a decision adverse to you, you may file a civil action in the United States District Court for the district where you live. The Commissioner of Social Security is named as defendant. The court has the power to affirm, modify or reverse the decision of the Commissioner, with or without remanding the case for a rehearing. 42 U.S.C. § 405(g).
If the U.S. District Court affirms the decision of SSA and grants judgment to the defendant Commissioner, you may appeal to the United States Court of Appeals for the circuit in which the district court sits. If the Court of Appeals denies your case, you may file a petition for certiorari with the United States Supreme Court. Recently the Supreme Court has granted certiorari in very few Social Security Act cases.